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发表于 2014-7-19 19:35:27 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Adhesion -Scar tissue fromprevious injuries, infections, or endometriosis that forms in and aroundreproductive organs, possibly interfering with reproductive capability.
Agglutination of Sperm-Sticking together of sperm, often due to infection, inflammation,or antibodies, which impairs the ability to fertilize an egg.
AID (Artificial insemination donor)- procedureintroducing sperm from an anonymous donor into the woman’s uterus in order toachieve a pregnancy.
AIH(Artificial insemination hudband)- procedureintroducing sperm from  the husband intothe wife’s uterus in order to achieve a pregnancy. Also called as IUI
Amenorrhea -Absence ofmenstruation.
Anovulation -Total absence ofovulation. Note: This is not necessarily the same as "amenorrhea."Menstruation may still occur with anovulation.
Andrology –Science of diseasesof males, including infertility, spermatogenesis and sexual dysfunction.
Antisperm Antibodies -Protective proteinthat exists naturally, or may develop, that causes clumping of sperm, thuspreventing or inhibiting fertilization.
Aspermia -Absence of semenand sperm.
Assisted reproductive technologyART
Assisted HatchingAHMechanical or chemical manipulation of the zona pellucida tofacilitate implantation of the embryo
Asthenospermia -Condition in whichthe sperm do not swim (move) at all or swim more slowly than normal.
Autologous cycle - an ART treatment cycle in which a woman intends to use, or usesher own oocytes or embryos. GIFT cycles are classified separately fromautologous cycles.
Azoospermia -Condition in whichthere are no sperm in the seminal fluid. This may be due to a blockage oftransport of sperm or to an impairment of sperm production.
Basal Body Temperature (BBT) -Temperature of thewoman, taken orally upon waking in the morning before any activity. Used tohelp determine if ovulation is occurring.
Biochemical pregnancy (preclinical spontaneousabortion/miscarriage): a pregnancy diagnosed only by the detection of hCG inserum or urine and that does not develop into a clinical pregnancy.
Blastocyst –The final stage ofthe embryo at the time of implantation. Now, many laboratories will offerculturing the embryo upto the blastocy st stage and transfer it in the uterusat this stage to improve pregnancy rates.
Clinical pregnancy: a pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonographic visualization ofone or more gestational sacs or definitive clinical signs of pregnancy. Itincludes ectopic pregnancy.
临床妊娠(率)Clinical pregnancy rate
Cervical Mucus -Mucus produced bythe cervix which permits passage of sperm to the uterus and fallopian tubes.This mucus changes in volume and quality at the time of ovulation.
Cervix - Lower section ofthe uterus that protrudes into the vagina, through which the sperm pass toreach the uterus.
Cleavage stage embryo - an embryo comprising about 8 cells usually developed by 2 or3 days after fertilization
Clinical pregnancy
Conception -Fertilization of awoman's egg by a man's sperm.
Congenital -Characteristic ofdefect present at birth, acquired during pregnancy but not necessarilyhereditary.
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia -Condition that one is born with due to the lack of an enzymeneeded by the adrenal gland. Normal products of the adrenal gland, therefore,are not produced; the body tries to stimulate the gland, and it enlarges(hyperplasia).
Congenital anomalies: all structural, functional, and geneticanomalies diagnosed in aborted fetuses, at birth, or in the neonatal period.
Controlled ovarian hyperstimulationCOH - medical treatment to induce the development of multipleovarian follicles in order to obtain multiple oocytes at oocyte pick-up (OPU 取卵)
控制性促排卵     Controlled ovarianstimulation (COS)
Cryopreservation –The preservaton ofsperm or embryos by freezing, usually by immersion in liquid nitrogen
Cryptorchidism -Occurs when atestes is not in its normal position in the scrotum. It may be in the groin orabdomen.
Delivery - a birth event in which one or more babies of 20weeks or more gestation or of 400 grams or more birthweight are born.
分娩        Delivery rate分娩率
DI (donor insemination) cycle: an artificial inseminationcycle in which sperm not from the woman’s partner (donor sperm) is used.
Discontinued cycle: an ART cycle that does not proceed tooocyte pick-up (OPU) or embryo transfer.
Donation cycle: an ART treatment cycle where a woman intendsto donate, or donates her oocytes to others. A donation cycle may result in thedonation of either oocytes or embryos to a recipient woman. The use of donorsperm does not alter the donor status of the cycle.
Dysmenorrhea -Cramping and painduring the time of menstruation.
Early neonatal death: death of a live born baby within 7 daysof birth.
Ectopic Pregnancy –pregnancy in which the embryo implants outside the uterine cavity, mostcommonly in the fallopian tubes.
Egg (Oocyte) Donation -Surgical removal ofan egg from one woman for fertilization with partner's or donor's sperm. Theresulting embryo is then transferred into the fallopian tube or uterus ofanother woman.
Embryo -Term used todescribe the early stages of fetal growth, from conception to the eighth weekof pregnancy.
Embryo/fetus reduction: a procedure to reduce the number of viableembryos or fetuses in a multiple pregnancy.
Embryo transferET: a procedurewhereby embryo(s) are placed in the uterus or fallopian tube. The embryo(s) canbe fresh or thawed following cryopreservation, and may include the transfer ofcleavage stage embryos or blastocysts.
Embryo transfer cycle: an ART cycle in which one or more embryosare transferred into the uterus or fallopian tube.
Endocrine System -System of glandsincluding the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenals and testicles orovaries.
Endometriosis -Presence ofendometrial tissue (the normal uterine lining) in abnormal locations such asthe fallopian tubes, ovaries and peritoneal cavity, often causing painfulmenstruation and infertility.
Ejaculate -Sperm combines withfluid from the seminal vesicle and a thick secretion from the prostate gland.This fluid is discharged through the penis.
Endometrium -Lining of theuterus.
Epididymis -Elongated organ inthe male lying above and behind the testicles. It contains a highly convolutedcanal, where after production, sperm are stored, nourished and developed forseveral months.
Estrogen -Class of femalehormones, produced mainly by the ovaries from the onset of puberty untilmenopause, which are responsible for the development of secondary sexualcharacteristics, such as breasts.
Extremely low birth weight: birth weight less than 1,000 g.
Extremely preterm birth: a live birth or stillbirth thattakes place after 20 but before 28 completed weeks of gestational age.
Fallopian Tubes -Pair of narrowtubes that carry the ovum (egg) from the ovary to the uterus.
Fetus: the product of fertilization from completion ofembryonic development, at 8 completed weeks after fertilization, until abortionor birth.
Fetal death (stillbirth): the birth of an infant after 20 ormore weeks gestation or 400 grams or more birthweight that shows no signs oflife.
Fertilization -Penetration of theegg by the sperm and joining of genetic materials to result in the developmentof an embryo.
Fibroid (Leiomyoma) -Benign tumor offibrous tissue that may occur in the uterine wall. May be totally withoutsymptoms or may cause abnormal menstrual patterns or infertility.
Fimbria -Fringed and hairlike outer ends of the fallopian tubes, which capture the egg when it isreleased from the ovary during ovulation.
Fresh cycle: an ART treatment cycle that intends to use, oruses embryo(s) that have not been cryopreserved (frozen).
Frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycle (FET): an ARTprocedure in which cycle monitoring is carried out with the intention of transferingfrozen-thawed embryo(s). Note: An FET cycle is initiated when specificmedication is provided or cycle monitoring is started with the intention totreat.
Frozen-thawed oocyte cycle: an ART procedure in which cycle monitoringis carried out with the intention of fertilizing thawed oocytes and performingembryo transfer.
Follicle -Structure in theovary that nurtures the developing egg and from which the egg is released.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) -Hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland that stimulatesthe ovary to develop a follicle for ovulation in women, and stimulates theproduction of sperm in the testicles in men.
Follicular Phase -First half of themenstrual cycle when ovarian follicle development takes place and the eggmatures.
Full-term birth: a live birth or stillbirth that takes placebetween 37 and 42 completed weeks of gestational age.
Gamete -Male or femalereproductive cells-the sperm or the egg.
Gestational age: the completed weeks of gestation of thefetus.
Gestational sac: a fluid-filled structure associated with earlypregnancy, which may be located inside or outside the uterus (in case of anectopic pregnancy).
GIFT –Gamete IntraFallopian Transfer ( transferring of the egg and sperm in the normal fallopian tube to facilitate fertilization)
Gonads -Glands that makethe gametes (the testicles in the male and the ovaries in the female).
Gonadotropin –a hormone whichstimulates the gonads
GnRH –gonadotropinreleasing hormone, a hormone produced by the hypothalamus which stimulates thepituitary gland to produce FSH and LH. They are two types of analogues of thehormone, agonist (one which acts like the hormone) and antagonist (one whichblocks the effect of the hormone)
Hatching: the process by which an embryo at the blastocyststage separates from the zona pellucida.
Heterotopic pregnancy: a double gestation pregnancy in whichimplantation takes place both inside and outside the uterine cavity.
High-ordermultiple: a pregnancy or delivery with three ormore fetuses or neonates.
HMG –Human menopausalgonadotropin, used to stimulate the ovaries. It contains FSH and LH in equal parts
HCG –Human chorioncgonadotropin, a hormone normally produced by the placenta and its presence inblood or urine is used to detect pregnancy. It is also used to trigger finalmaturation of the egg
Hormone-Chemical produced by the endocrine gland that circulates in theblood and has widespread action throughout the body.
Hypogonadism -Inadequate ovarianor testicular function as shown by low sperm production or lack of follicleproduction, as well as in low or absent levels of FSH, LH.
Hypothalamus -Gland at the baseof the brain that controls the release of hormones from the pituitary.
Hysteroscopy –an endoscopicprocedure used to visualize the interior of the uterus. The endoscope is afibre optic telescope and can be used for diagnosis as well as for certain surgicalprocedures can also be carried out through the hysterocope.
Idiopathic (Unexplained) Infertility -Term used to describe infertility when no reason can be found toexplain the cause of a couple's infertility.
Implantation -Embedding of thefertilized egg in the lining of the uterus (endometrium).
种植       Implantationrate 种植率
Impotence -Inability of themale to achieve or maintain an erection for intercourse due to physical oremotional problems or to a combination of factors.
IUI –Intra UterineInsemination ( transfer of washed and enriched sperm directly in the cavity ofthe uterus)
ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection): a procedure wherebya single sperm is injected directly into the oocyte to aid fertilisation. If anembryo transfer cycle involves the transfer of at least one embryo createdusing ICSI, it is counted as an ICSI cycle.
IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) –a process wherefertilization of the sperm and theegg occurs outside the body, (in a laboratory). The resulting embryo isimplanted in the woman’s uterus.
Induced abortion


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